old kingdom





What they were famous for

Social developments during the Old Kingdom


Before 3100 B.C. First and Second Dynasties

Menes also Known as Narmer

He unified Upper and Lower Egypt

Memphis becomes the capital. Land is reclaimed from the Nile and used for farming.

Old Kingdom

3100 B.C. to 2125 B.C.




3rd Dynasty



He built the first pyramid at Saqqara

This was a prosperous age as shown in the artistic tombs

4th Dynasty

Cheops also known as Kufu

He built the famous pyramid at Giza. He also limited the power of the priesthood, which made him unpopular

Egyptian art was taken to the highest form. This was also a time of peace and stability.

5th Dynasty



For the first time, kings appointed high officials who were not family members

Methods of record keeping and accounting were developed

6th Dynasty

Pepi II

He was 8 years old when he assumed power. His was the longest reign in Egyptian history.

Foreign invasions lead to the collapse of the Sixth Dynasty.

 6th Dynasty

2283BC-2278 B.


A female who appeared to act as king, Nitokris is known for killing many people to avenge the murder of her brother Pepy II.

This was an unhappy period of famine, civil unrest and a rise in the death rate.

First Intermediate period;

7th to 9th Dynasties

2200 B.C. to 2050 B.C.

Rise of the Heracleopolis Kings (Lower Egypt) and the Theban Kings (Upper Egypt)

Very little evidence remains of this period

This was a period of civil war after the decline of the Old Kingdom.


 Agriculture       Hieroglyphics     The Nile River: Gift from the Gods

The Nile River: Everyday Life      The Role of Women        The Upper Class

Timeline      Trade in Ancient Egypt     Village Life